Musahars, who number 3.1 million in Bihar, are the lowest of the Mahadalit community. The term ‘Musahar’ means ‘rat-eater’, which gives an idea of the people’s status. Widespread poverty amongst Musahars has led them to consume rats as a source of protein. Although rat-eating is by no means confined to Musahars, the social stigma attached to the community remains. Although rat-eating is by no means confined to Musahars, the social stigma attached to the community due to this practice remains. They mostly reside in rural areas, in makeshift huts or in one-room mud houses on land they do not own. They work as agricultural and daily wage labourers. Despite the GoI’s introduction of programmes specifically to benefit the backward castes, Musahars continue to lag behind almost all other social groups in India and remain the poorest caste in Bihar. Individuals of the Musahar community have faced exclusion in various forms. Musahar girls and women face frequent and damaging discrimination and are subject to exploitation, violence, and sexual harassment. For generations, the Musahars have been deprived of education, healthcare, adequate livelihoods. Among women, their literacy rate is 0.9% and among men, it is about 3%.